Hodges' Model: Welcome to the QUAD

- provides a space devoted to the conceptual framework known as Hodges' model. A potential resource within HEALTH, SOCIAL CARE, INFORMATICS and EDUCATION the model incorporates two axes: individual-group and humanistic-group with four care (knowledge) domains - Sciences, Interpersonal, Political and Social. Follow the development of a new website using Drupal as I commence post graduate distance-learning studies in January 2014. See our bibliography, archive and please do get in touch. Welcome.

Thursday, April 24, 2014

Interested in writing?

Two items can be readily brought together here: 

----- Forwarded Message -----
From: JS Drummond
To: NURSE-PHILOSOPHY AT JISCMAIL.AC.UK
Sent: Tuesday, 22 April 2014, 18:00
Nursing Philosophy (Post)-Graduate Student Essay Prize
Hi Folks,

To interested parties, there is still time to submit an entry for the (Post)-Graduate Student Essay Prize to the Journal, Nursing Philosophy.

Details are on the IPONS website. http://www.ipons.co.uk

Best Wishes,
John Drummond (IPONS)
Sent on behalf of Derek Sellman, Editor, Nursing Philosophy

The latest paper on Hodges' model -

Exploring the Dimensions of Recovery and User Experience

- has progressed to the point were I am awaiting contact from the production office of the International Journal of Person Centered Medicine.

In addition to the (Post)-Graduate appeal with IPONS there may be an opportunity through h2cm. If there are any student nurses and other health care learners interested in models of care and the future, I would be pleased to offer some support on a paper. Perhaps there are personal tutors out there who could also engage? I can't offer a prize, but there is surely a prospect with the journal Advances in Nursing Sciences:
Models of Care for the Future
Vol 38:1 - June 2015
Manuscript Due Date: October 15, 2014
As nations worldwide seek to establish models of care that provide quality and efficiency, nurse leaders are emerging to play a significant role in the development of these models. For this issue of ANS we are seeking manuscripts that provide theoretical underpinnings of creative models of care, as well as evidence that supports their implementation. Manuscripts should be clearly grounded in a nursing perspective; the content can include philosophic, theoretic, empirical or ethical aspects related to the model.
I do have form here - two submissions without success - but the very helpful feedback did result in a publication elsewhere.

With studies of my own I can't write another paper alone, but perhaps I can help others. It's time for me to not just think about the model, but do something with it too. It feels strange finally having questions out there in the field - a small study.

Earlier this week a colleague referred to the model's elegant parsimony. This is definitely a quality of Hodges' model and one that merits exploration with new explorers.

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Tuesday, April 22, 2014

International Council of Women's Health; Multidisciplinary Conference - Beyond 2015: What will it take

http://icowhi2014.com/

Dear Colleagues and friends

FUNDISA with SIGMA THETA TAU INTERNATIONAL as diamond partner, is hosting the -

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON WOMEN'S HEALTH ISSUE (ICOWHI) 20th conference

- from 12-14 November 2014 at the ICC in Cape Town. Please note this is a MULTIDISCIPLINARY conference and any discipline working on women's health issues or related topics are invited to submit an abstract. See the call for abstracts.

Please distribute to relevant colleagues in your network.

Kind regards

Hester
Prof Hester C. Klopper (PhD, MBA, FANSA)
President: Sigma Theta Tau International
Chief Executive Officer: FUNDISA
Professor: UWC and NWU
Office tel: +27 (0) 12 333 1415+27 (0) 12 333 1415
Twitter: @klopperhc

The GANM is part of the Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing PAHO/WHO Collaborating Center. The thoughts, opinions and views that are posted on the GANM do not reflect those of either Johns Hopkins University or WHO.

Please visit the GANM webpage at: http://knowledge-gateway.org/ganm/
If you want to reply privately, read below.
You are receiving this message because you are a member of the community GANM (Global Alliance for Nursing and Midwifery).

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Sunday, April 20, 2014

Blog birthdays, a missing model and history

Eight years ago today this blog was born. Last month I came across a backup of some old emails and discovered one of my first related to Hodges' model. This was while attending Bolton College for the Post Graduate Certificate in Education in 1997. I had a project to complete and in researching nursing theory came across a resource by Judy Norris then at the University of Alberta in Edmonton. There was one a model of nursing missing. I'd also visited Alberta (ALTA) twice in 1979 and 1989: wonderful holidays.

19 ‎March ‎1997, ‏‎09:28:38

Hello there.

I'm fairly new to the net and E-mail, but fairly conversant with other aspects of I.T.. I would be very interested in being involved. My E-mail is read once a week, when attending college.

Both nursing informatics and nursing theory have been keen interests for some time. Over Easter I'll have more time to explore and learn.
There is one 'model', which I don't think you have listed, although it is debatable whether it qualifies as a model - the health career model.

Perhaps I could write something up with references, and key questions?
(And also consider the list of work for volunteers.)

Bye for now

Peter
P.S. I hope ALTA is still as beautiful as I remember it.
So, h2cm became the preoccupation and now there is a small research project to complete these next six weeks, Hodges' model within the residential care sector.

Nursing theory links: H2cm Links II (any updates?)

Acknowledgement: Judy Norris
Thanks Judy for your encouragement all those years ago and with this post.

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Saturday, April 19, 2014

care.data: too much information?

individual
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ------------------------------------------- mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
group

individual - person
ethics
'personal'
My identity:
 lost in numbers Vs. specificity of patterns
*my attitude to my 'sensitive' information
health literacy
personal responsibility, self care, quantified self
my understanding of care.data
Trust



datasets, BIG data
hospital episodes, treatments
research
privacy research
 anonymising process for nhs data
*care.data is a natural step towards personalised medicine?
axon - neurobiology
Axon - data warehouse
statistics
service development and innovation

data security, law, information governance
NHS
commercial, contract
potential for abuse - assumptions
public mental health
public health
policy, consultation
policy communication
public engagement, primary care
informed consent, opt-out
data definitions, standards
ISO27001
population, insurance



Additional link:
Allyson Pollock - Protecting confidential patient information and promoting public health research. Three proposed amendments to the Care Bill

Image source:
http://www.contactmusic.com/press/maximo-park-announce-new-album-too-much-information-released-3rd-february-2014

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Friday, April 18, 2014

[ Exclusive* preview ] Wrinkles


individual, dignity, person, memories, identity,
security, communication, perception, meaning, friends,
belonging, mood, orientation ...


demographics, evidence based care, medication, treatments, physical environment ....
policy, standards, inspection, training, organisation, safety, governance, management culture, leadership ...

Link:
http://www.arrugaslapelicula.com/

*Person centered?

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Thursday, April 17, 2014

IEEE Computer, Special issue on Physical-Cyber-Social Computing

Physical-Cyber-Social Computing

Final submissions due: 1 September 2014
Publication issue: May/June 2015

Please email the guest editors a brief description of the article you plan to submit by 15 August 2014

Guest Editors: Payam Barnaghi, Manfred Hauswirth, Amit Sheth, and Vivek Singh (ic3-2015 AT computer.org)

Computing, communication, and mobile technologies are among the most influential innovations that shape our lives today. Technology advancements such as mobile devices that reach over half of Earth's population, social networks with more than a billion members, and the rapid growth of Internet-connected devices (the Internet of Things) offer a unique opportunity to collect and communicate information among everybody and everything on the planet. Interacting with the physical world enriches our existing methods of information exchange — sharing our thoughts, communicating social events, and work collaboration via the new dimension of physical computing. This all-encompassing "new world of information" requires that we be able to process extremely large volumes of data to extract knowledge and insights related to our surrounding environment, personal life, and activities, on both local and global scales.

These trends have led to an emergence of physical-cyber-social (PCS) computing, which involves a holistic treatment of data, information, and knowledge from the physical, cyber, and social worlds to integrate, understand, correlate, and provide contextually relevant abstractions to humans and the applications that serve them. PCS computing builds on and significantly extends current progress in cyber-physical, socio-technical, and cyber-social systems. This emerging topic seeks to provide powerful ways to exploit data that are available through various IoT, citizen and social sensing, Web, and open data sources that have either seen or will soon see explosive growth. Providing interoperable information representations and extracting actionable knowledge from the deluge of human and machine sensory data are key issues.

This special issue seeks innovative contributions to computer systems and interaction design, information processing and knowledge engineering, and adaptive solutions associated with PCS computing and the novel applications it enables. Potential topics include:

  • semantics and information modeling; semantic integration, fusion, and abstraction strategies;
  • stream processing and reasoning on complex PCS data; real-time feedback control and response systems; human/event/situation-centered views of data streams;
  • pattern recognition, trend detection, anomaly and event detection, semantic event processing, and inferring actionable knowledge techniques;
  • spatio-temporal, location-aware, continuous, scalable, and dynamic analysis;
  • security, privacy, and trust issues in collection, storage, and processing; and
  • novel and significant PCS applications, deployments, and evaluations in areas including personalized and contextualized information and alerts, health, biomedicine, smart cities, and human/social/economic development.
Submission Guidelines

All submissions must be original manuscripts of fewer than 5,000 words, focused on Internet technologies and implementations. All manuscripts are subject to peer review on both technical merit and relevance to IC's international readership — primarily practicing engineers and academics who are looking for material that introduces new technology and broadens familiarity with current topics. We do not accept white papers, and we discourage strictly theoretical or mathematical papers. To submit a manuscript, please log on to ScholarOne (https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com:443/ic-cs) to create or access an account, which you can use to log on to IC's Author Center and upload your submission.

My source:
Announcements mailing list
Announcements AT ubicomp.org
http://ubicomp.org/mailman/listinfo/announcements_ubicomp.org

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Saturday, April 12, 2014

ERCIM News No. 97 Special theme: "Cyber-Physical Systems"

Dear ERCIM News Reader,

ERCIM News No. 97 has just been published at http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/en97

Special theme: "Cyber-Physical Systems"
http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/en97/special/

Guest editors
:
- Maria Domenica Di Benedetto, University of L’Aquila, Center of Excellence DEWS
- Françoise Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, CNRS, Laboratoire des Signaux et Systèmes
- Erwin Schoitsch, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology/AARIT.

http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/en97Keynote: "The Importance of Cyber-Physical Systems for Industry" by Clas Jacobson, Chief Scientist for United Technologies Systems & Controls Engineering, USA

This issue is also available for download as:
pdf
http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/images/stories/EN97/EN97-web.pdf
epub: http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/images/stories/EN97/EN97.epub

Next issue: No. 98, July 2014 - Special Theme: "Smart Cities"
(the call will be published shortly at http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/call)

Thank you for your interest in ERCIM News.
Feel free to forward this message to others who might be interested.

Best regards,
Peter Kunz
ERCIM News central editor

Includes:
Optogenetics to Unravel the Mechanisms of Parkinsonian Symptoms
Big Data in Healthcare: Intensive Care Units as a Case Study
SEMEOTICONS: Face Reading to Help People stay Healthy


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cor Baayen Award 2014: Nominate a promising young researcher. Deadline: 30 April
http://www.ercim.eu/activity/cor-baayen-award
-------------------------------------------------------------------
ERCIM "Alain Bensoussan" Fellowship Programme
ERCIM offers fellowships for PhD holders from all over the world. The next round is open. Application deadline: 30 April 2014 http://fellowship.ercim.eu/

Follow us on twitter http://twitter.com/#!/ercim_news
and join the open ERCIM LinkedIn Group http://www.linkedin.com/groups/ERCIM-81390

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Making learning visible dodging bullet points

Since January and the start of the course in Technology Enhanced Education there's been - and still is - a lot of reading to do. I've gained new and renewed insights into possible research methods and I'll share some of this in the next few weeks. The figure below is from:

Hay, D., Kinchin, I., Lygo‐Baker, S., 2008. Making learning visible: the role of concept mapping in higher education. Studies in Higher Education. 33, 295–311. doi:10.1080/03075070802049251

Figure 4 from Hay.
Over the years I've noticed and been rewarded when after a session on the care domains model some audience members have commented that the exercise made them think. There's nothing special in that of course, simple maths makes me think. Perhaps, people felt relief for a change from the passive absorption of facts, images, acting as static targets for a slew of bullet points. What comes across though is that there was some effort involved. In the figure above we can imagine the energy needed to not only create new and maintain existing concepts, but reject others. This might also constitute one front of the theory - practice gap?

This in a way reflects my thinking that although we refer to person-centred care in theory, practice and policy, this does not automatically follow. Person-centredness should take effort, work and energy. If that is the case, it also needs time.

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Wednesday, April 09, 2014

Angling for Ideas

The Angler by Paul Klee (1879-1940, Switzerland)

This is just a rock pool
I reflect

So is this, even before Pollock
just a single drip in the ocean

Fishing for praise

Here we trawl, as we do we maul.
Why owns the holistic ocean?
Does it bleed, does it leak?
Abs-orbs all angles?
just?


Image source: http://en.wahooart.com/@@/8LT48X-Paul-Klee-The-Angler

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Tuesday, April 08, 2014

From local field to global arena: the rough and tumble of conceptual sport

Jo hit the deck. it was a foul tackle, an apt description for a move that Jo did not see coming.

Talk about a change of perspective!! Sheesh! Was it bone crunching, did I hear something?

It could have been worse. At least the ground knows it’s March and not January.

There was no anticipation, no reflex adjustment, no ability to shift, just in time, no poetry in motion this time.

The coach and physio dashed on to the field. Jo looked up and said “OK, tell me straight, what’s the damage?”

Coach looked down. "Well you're talking that's a start." Assessing rapidly though and through gritted teeth he replied:

“It’s not looking good Jo.”
“Wha?

[Silence]

Oh come on tell me…”

“Well, kid it’s bad, yes, really bad.

You’ve got an academic detachment.”

Jo groaned, "Oh no, not that! What about the future!!"

<->

OK, sorry about that and I do realise that a great many world class athletes are very well educated people.

The tendency of young and promising athletes to relinquish contact with their academic side and really be the best they can be - remains a challenge for some, but this post concerns academic detachment as in - educational institutions and students with the world.

Call it a paradox, a contradiction in this hyper-connected world, what with gap years, travel opportunities.... that there seem so many examples of a lack of awareness of the bigger picture that is the international stage. Not just in students, in education, but the wider citizenry.

Does this matter. Well it does, at least according to the 2012 Conference of The Association of International Education Administrators (AIEA) which included:

Academic detachment is not an option in the 21st Century

on the theme “Building a Secure World through International Education.”

The point I’d like to make is that Hodges’ model is fit to assist in some of the objectives that the AIEA outlines in this context:
Keynote speaker Abiodan Williams, Senior Vice ‐ President of the US Institute for Peace, offered remarks at the opening plenary. Mr. Williams said that his own international education began with post ‐ secondary level study at the Lester B. Pearson College, United World College of the Pacific, in Victoria, BC. To develop graduates committed to peace and security, he urged educational institutions to teach:
  • Knowledge – including greater interdisciplinarity and learning about conflict prevention
  • International outlook – to shape the attitudes and outlook of a new generation, encourage all students to spend at least six months studying abroad, learn at least one new language and take at least one course about another country
  • Sensibility – alluding to Fielding’s definition of ‘good nature’, developing people of benevolent and amiable temper of mind, who sympathize with the problems of others and who enjoy the happiness of others
“Academic detachment from the world is not an option in the 21st Century,” he said. Globalization is here to stay, and international education is playing a key role in contributing positive answers to many of the challenges that it presents.

Many institutions are actively engaged in programs that further environmental and energy sustainability, broader access to health care and education, resolution of conflicts, pursuit of fundamental human rights, economic development, and greater cross‐cultural understanding around the world. Harnessing the collective effort, and lessons learned, from each of these individual initiatives is important in moving internationalization forward. [AIEA conference website]
With thanks to Katy Rosenbaum:
27 March 2014:
Good morning,
Thank you for your email. I will check with my colleagues to see if they have any suggestions for someone who might be able to provide more information on work within this theme, and if they have any insights on this, I will certainly forward these on to you.
In the meantime, all conference session materials that presenters made available to download are available at the link below. The zip files include multiple presentations and handouts; underneath are links to these materials hosted on other websites: http://www.aieaworld.org/2012-conference#Presentations
The article you referred to mentioned Abiodan Williams' keynote address, which is available here: http://www.aieaworld.org/assets/docs/Conference_Materials/2012/abiodunwilliamsspeech2012.pdf
Thank you for your interest; I hope this information is useful. If my colleagues have other suggestions, I will certainly pass them on.

Best,
Katy Rosenbaum
Program Associate - AIEA
Association of International Education Administrators
www.aieaworld.org
kathryn.rosenbaum AT duke.edu

Additional link:
http://www.ruthnestvold.com/tomjones.htm
Thanks Dad.

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Saturday, April 05, 2014

Lancaster University studies - residential past week

It's not listed in the sidebar, but by far the most significant h2cm related event I've attended in the almost eight years of Welcome to the QUAD has been the residential week up at Lancaster. I had just 41 miles to travel; fellow students in cohort 7 came from much further afield: UAE, Egypt, German, Japan, Canada, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Singapore and Isle of Man (Yo! there used to be users of h2cm there!) ....

I was late on the first day.

It was 0930 start last Monday, I arrived 1015. There was an accident at Preston on the M6.

It was great to meet people, fellow students and staff that I'd shared online learning tasks with since January. Strange to think - hope! - that we'd all be meeting again in a year. Meeting cohort 6, the group 12 months ahead of us was very informative. Also exciting that the group are considering an extramural residential in other climes: I hope this happens.

The presentations were a great help and included guest speakers - Prof. Charles Crook and Dr Debbie Prescott (cohort 1).

Now I've a research study to complete and Hodges' model is (will be) a key part of this. It's looking like there will be a literature search to follow.

Yesterday 0930 I thought the day was going to be wasted. It wasn't. I settled on Zotero now and it's a boon (at least I hope I don't have to start afresh!). There are other productivity tools to find, select and master into a workflow.

I hope to hear next week about a research conference in September that will further h2cm studies.

The study double bind is always an interesting one, being scared out your pants ... the 60+ mark: but also reassured - "You wouldn't be here if....".

I'd applied before for other programmes (Netherlands and thought about Italy), drafting a proposal and with subsequent efforts amazed at the demonstrated ineptitude. I think there's progress.

At the reception the progression of studies was stressed. The way, if we get beyond part one, we will be learning more and more about less and less.

How does that sit with Hodges' model and all it entails?

  • A generic conceptual framework?
  • A series of conceptual spaces?
  • Is there such a thing as 'holistic bandwidth'?
  • Can Hodges' model serve as the universal conceptual framework for health care, nursing and social care?
As the birthday of W2tQ beckons later this month there's no escape. Drupal 8 is going to throttle me soon as the pressure to introduce TEL technology enhanced learning to my studies takes hold.

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Call for Papers for a Special Issue of Human-Computer Interaction journal "Body Sensing and Tracking in Healthcare"

Special Issue Editors
Kenton O’Hara (Microsoft Research)
Abigail Sellen  (Microsoft Research)
Juan Wachs (Purdue University)
Bart Jansen (University of Brussels)

Recent technical developments in sensing and tracking the human body and and its motions have sparked huge interest in healthcare domains. New interaction techniques promise to transform key aspects of healthcare practice for both diagnosis and treatment. Developments in sensing capabilities and machine learning open up rich possibilities for tracking and analysing the body’s form and movement. Alongside established optoelectronic sensing, in which machine readable markers are placed on the patient’s body, marker-free computer vision technologies (e.g., Kinect) have made body tracking cheaper and more practical. In addition, sensors such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, and ultrasonics offer new opportunities for how body form, motion, and orientation can be understood.

These body-tracking technologies are already being explored in both patient- and clinician-oriented applications. They are being deployed in diagnosis and ongoing assessment of motor impairment conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis.  Research is examining their use in rehabilitation of movement disorders arising from injury or other conditions.  Within the operating theatre, touchless gesture recognition enables clinicians to interact with medical images without compromising sterility. Other augmented-reality research explores how cameras and projectors can be used to superimpose medical images on the patient enabling clinicians to view inside the body in relation to external anatomical features.

These systems raise important research questions that are central to the concerns of Human-Computer Interaction, from the development of new forms of interaction to the understanding of emerging practices with these systems in clinical contexts. This special issue will bring together original research exploring HCI concerns of body form and motion tracking in healthcare including: surgery, patient diagnosis, assessment, rehabilitation, and other forms of clinical intervention.  It will also address the effect of these new technologies on existing clinical and treatment practices.

Research topics include:

  • Novel applications of body tracking for assessment, rehabilitation, and diagnosis of particular clinical conditions.
  • New interaction techniques with clinical relevance enabled by these technologies.
  • Studies of collaborative practices in clinical contexts with such systems, changes in clinical practices they enable, and challenges for existing clinical practice arising from their deployment.
  • Specific modeling methods and considerations that are required for successful body tracking technologies in relation to specific clinical requirements (e.g., skeletal models and smoothing of dynamic data for motion).
Papers exploring other issues arising from the design and deployment of these new techniques are also welcome.

Timeline
Proposals due: May 30, 2014
Response to authors: July 4, 2014
Full papers due: October 31, 2014
Reviews to authors: January 30, 2015
Revised papers due: March 27, 2015
Reviews to authors: June 5, 2015
Final papers due: July 3, 2015

Submissions
To help authors align their research to the theme of this special issue, we encourage potential authors to submit proposals for papers. Proposals should be about 1000 words and provide a clear indication of what the paper is about. Proposals will be evaluated for relevance to the special issue theme, and guidance will be given. Both proposal and full paper submissions should be submitted to the HCI Editorial site (mc.manuscriptcentral.com/hci). Follow the guidelines and instructions for submissions on the site. There is a place on the submission site to note that your submission is for this special issue. Special Issue submissions will be peer reviewed to the usual standards of the HCI journal.

Kenton, Abi, Juan and Bart
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To join or leave the Caring Technology Research Announcement List, go to
http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/caring-tec-research
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Announcement archives:
http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/Caring-Tec-Research.html

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Tuesday, April 01, 2014

Space Station Robot Forgets Key Again

individual
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ------------------------------------------- mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
group

Memory: artificial (jokes aside) and real

Just-be?

Making sense of the
activities of daily living

Chunking

Space Station Robot Forgets Key Again


Making sense of someone
else's sense of the
 activities of daily living



Funding for research
(competition!)
group - population

Additional link: The Economist - Rise of the robots 29.3.14
Image source: APOD

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Saturday, March 29, 2014

Amelia: with Human Steps Lalala

INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ------------------------------------------- mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
individual

Just-be







with us





NO!
Be still!
Just-ice
group - population

My source: Sky Arts 1 and Amelia - my grandmother

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Friday, March 28, 2014

Five Fever Tales: Fact-based dramas about malaria, one of the oldest human diseases

The following radio broadcasts may be of interest:

Five Fever Tales by Lavinia Greenlaw

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03yzlhk

Five Fever Tales by Lavinia Greenlaw


These brief plays are very interesting as they present history in a docu-drama approach. The science behind the discovery of what the 'fever' was/is and the challenge for those who first saw new 'living' things through the microscope and then convincing the scientific establishment is quite fascinating.




The economic incentives to solving the 'fever' are also salutary and give pause for thought in considering global health today (and tomorrow - global warning) as is recognition of resistance and current genetic research programmes.

I believe these programmes are freely accessible worldwide, for a limited time period.

Also posted on HIFA2015 c/o the moderator.


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Tuesday, March 25, 2014

Extraordinary lives: Demographic influences on academic studies - Life Writing, Life Story Work

Recent reading for studies at Lancaster included
Ethics of Internet Research: Contesting the Human Subjects Research Model

Beyond a week's focus on ethics the above refers to Life Writing:

The study of Life Writing spans many disciplines, and represents 'a fast changing terrain' which is concerned with the study of the writing of lives, encompassing auto/biography as well as aspects of life story that originate outside the written form, such as oral history, testimony, and artifacts such as photography and the visual arts (Jolly, 2001, p. ix). The written text is viewed as a vehicle for an individual's construction of identity, the personal narrative that it records being

…a fundamental means by which people comprehend their own lives and present a 'self' to their audience. (Borland, 1991, p. 71)
...
The multiple approaches taken in Life Writing research can arguably be attributed to the multidisciplinary background of its practitioners. Like Internet researchers, those researching Life Writing have been trained in a variety of disciplines including anthropology, sociology, history, linguistics and literary theory. These various disciplines have contributed a range of insights into the collection of oral history and analysis of the resultant texts (Gluck and Patai, 1991, p. 3). Ethical guidelines for the conduct of Life Writing researchers, such as those published by the Oral History Society in the UK, appear to follow a human subjects model, focussing on the undertaking of the interview, and restricting discussion of the resultant text to issues of copyright. Yet practitioners emphasise the need to remember that as:

…the typical product of an interview is a text, not a reproduction of reality …models of textuality [are] therefore needed. (Gluck and Patai, 1991, p. 3)
What chance is there that Life Writing will be - is being influenced by current demographic and societal trends? Trends and challenges that inevitably present new meanings for history within life and with this new ethical issues? While life writing is clearly an established discipline, how might it develop and what other challenges might apply?

In health and social care Life Story Work is an important part in of assessment and interventions. Has it been discussed, is it appropriate, completed and if so, is this work available and accessible? Do we need people beyond the existing establishment with a dedicated set of skills and knowledge to engage with people diagnosed early on, or will treatments soon make this less of an issue? Will dementia and early dementia especially, with the latest technology prompt new perspectives, or reinforce existing life writing practices? What is an archive? In life story work these people, persons, individuals (and their lives?) are more than subjects.

There are many overlaps already in the mental health state of past and present national leaders, while health services continue to bridge the dementia gap in diagnosis. Biography: world leaders, other recognised lives in Life Story Work and seeking to preserve personal identities in dementia care: clearly these are figures that count.

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